from macropy.case_classes import macros, enum

class Direction:
    North, South, East, West

print(Direction(name="North")) # Direction.North

print(Direction.South.name)    # South

print(Direction(id=2))         # Direction.East

print(Direction.West.id)       # 3

print(Direction.North.next)    # Direction.South
print(Direction.West.prev)     # Direction.East

# [Direction.North, Direction.East, Direction.South, Direction.West]

MacroPy also provides an implementation of Enumerations , heavily inspired by the Java implementation and built upon Case Classes. These are effectively case classes with:

  • A fixed set of instances;
  • Auto-generated name, id, next and prev fields;
  • Auto-generated all list, which enumerates all instances;
  • A __new__ method that retrieves an existing instance, rather than creating new ones

Note that instances of an Enum cannot be created manually: calls such as Direction(name="North") or Direction(id=2) attempt to retrieve an existing Enum with that property, throwing an exception if there is none. This means that reference equality is always used to compare instances of Enums for equality, allowing for much faster equality checks than if you had used Case Classes.

Definition of Instances

The instances of an Enum can be declared on a single line, as in the example above, or they can be declared on subsequent lines:

class Direction:

or in a mix of the two styles:

class Direction:
    North, South
    East, West

The basic rule here is that the body of an Enum can only contain bare names, function calls (show below), tuples of these, or function defs: no other statements are allowed. In turn the bare names and function calls are turned into instances of the Enum, while function defs (shown later) are turned into their methods. This also means that unlike Case Classes, Enums cannot have a body initializer.

Complex Enums

class Direction(alignment, continents):
    North("Vertical", ["Northrend"])
    East("Horizontal", ["Azeroth", "Khaz Modan", "Lordaeron"])
    South("Vertical", ["Pandaria"])
    West("Horizontal", ["Kalimdor"])

    def opposite(self):
        return Direction(id=(self.id + 2) % 4)

    def padded_name(self, n):
        return ("<" * n) + self.name + (">" * n)

# members
print(Direction.North.alignment) # Vertical
print(Direction.East.continent)  # ["Azeroth", "Khaz Modan", "Lordaeron"]

# properties
print(Direction.North.opposite)  # Direction.South

# methods
print(Direction.South.padded_name(2)) # <<South>>

Enums are not limited to the auto-generated members shown above. Apart from the fact that Enums have no constructor, and no body initializer, they can contain fields, methods and properties just like Case Classes do. This allows you to associate arbitrary data with each instance of the Enum, and have them perform as full-fledged objects rather than fancy integers.